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Gastritis


"...Atrophic gastritis- results when antibodies attack the stomach lining, causing it to become very thin and also causes destruction of cells that produce acid and enzymes. This condition usually affects the elderly and those who have had partial gastrectomy ( a procedure in which part of the stomach is removed). Atrophic gastritis may cause pernicious anemia because it interferes with the absorption of vitamin B12 from food...." ...this text is below ...


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Gastritis

Medical Term:

GASTRITIS

Common Name:

None Specified
Description: Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.

The lining of the stomach is remarkably resistant to injury from the acid and the digestive enzymes. Nevertheless, the stomach lining can sometimes become irritated and inflamed.

Causes: There are numerous causes for gastritis and these are listed below:

1) Medications like ASA and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and steroids- this type of gastritis develops slowly, in otherwise healthy people, presenting with bleeding or ulcers. Alcohol, caffeine, nicotine can also cause gastritis.

2) Stress due to severe illness- this is the most severe type of gastritis. This may occur e.g. after a severe burn and injuries.

3) Bacterial infection- commonly results from an infection by Helicobacter pylori ( bacteria that grow in the mucus secreting cells of the stomach lining). No other bacteria are known to grow in the normally acidic stomach, but many types of bacteria may grow if the stomach does not produce acid.

4) Viral or fungal infections- may develop in people with a prolonged illness or impaired immune system.

5) Atrophic gastritis- results when antibodies attack the stomach lining, causing it to become very thin and also causes destruction of cells that produce acid and enzymes. This condition usually affects the elderly and those who have had partial gastrectomy ( a procedure in which part of the stomach is removed). Atrophic gastritis may cause pernicious anemia because it interferes with the absorption of vitamin B12 from food.

6) Radiation- causes damage to the stomach lining and allowing bacteria to invade the stomach wall, causing a sudden, severe and extremely painful form of gastritis.

7) Unknown causes- Plasma cell gastritis and Menetriere's disease

Prevention: Gastritis may be prevented by avoiding the following : medicines that irritate your stomach such as anti-inflammatory medications; excessive ingestion of alcohol; smoking; foods you find hard to digest.

Signs & Symptoms

Abdominal pain and cramps.

 Sharp, dull or annoying pain in the chest.
 Belching or gas.
 . Acid taste in mouth.
 Appetite loss.
 . Weakness.
 Vomiting (occasionally).
 Black stool due to gastrointestinal bleeding.
 Swollen abdomen.
 Mild nausea and diarrhea (rare).
 Hiccups
Risk Factors

. Use of drugs, such as aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, cortisone, caffeine, and many more.

 . Stress, including surgery and hospitalization for other problems.
 Improper diet.
 Illness that has lowered resistance.
 Smoking.
 Excess alcohol consumption.
 Fatigue or over work.
 The presence of a bacteria, Helicobacter pylori, in the stomach.
Diagnosis & Treatment
Diagnosis of gastritis is suspected when a patient has upper abdominal pain with nausea or heartburn. If the symptoms persist, tests are often not needed and treatment is started on the basis of most likely diagnosis. If the doctor is not certain or if the patient does not respond to treatment, then an examination of the stomach is performed using an endoscope ( a fiber optic tube is passed through the mouth) and a sample of the stomach lining is obtained for examination.
General Measures:
 Goals of treatment are to relieve the symptoms and eliminate the gastric irritant or other cause
 Stop smoking.
 Hospitalization may be required if excessive bleeding occurs.
Medications:
 For minor discomfort, you may use non-prescription antacids or acetaminophen. Don't use aspirin.
 Other medications such as ulcer-healing drugs may be prescribed- H2 receptor antagonists such as ranitidine (Zantac) and nizatidine (Axid).
 Helicobacter pylori can be eliminated by treating with a special regimen which is a combination of two antibiotics and an ulcer healing medication (e.g. omeprazole).
 Prostaglandins e.g. misoprostol (cytotec) may help allay gastric mucosal injury. May be used with NSAIDS to prevent gastritis.
Activity:

Resume normal activities as soon as symptoms improve.

Diet:
 Don't eat solid food on the first day of the attack. Drink liquids frequently, preferably milk or water. Resume a normal diet slowly, but avoid hot and spicy foods until symptoms disappear.
 Avoid caffeine
Possible Complications :
 Bleeding is an uncommon but dangerous complication, especially in elderly.
Prognosis
Usually curable in several days if the cause is eliminated. Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection may require a repeated course of treatment.
Other

'Nothing Specified'.

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"... Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.

The lining of the stomach is remarkably resistant to injury from the acid and the digestive enzymes. Nevertheless, the stomach lining can sometimes become irritated and inflamed. ..."  in the article below...




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"...I have in fact made my choice. I am currently working on the choice that I believe I have made. I'm at my keyboard and this is the work I feel I am directed to. It is the work that I like the best: so, does that make it a wrong choice? There are a few articles which are posted on this website that suggest doing what 'feels right'.  In my life, what felt right hasn't always been the best thing... or am I confusing that with what 'feels good?' Maybe. But I believe that if your whole heart is in something... if something comes easy... if something doesn't feel like work; and if you are willing to put forth the effort, willing to go the distance; and, if you have the opportunity, then well, those may be the operative ideas/words/actions, that help to make a decision. Then, as I said, I use prayer. So, the second half of prayer is listening... waiting... having patience. Giving time, time. Meaning let the work begin. And rest and let the results ..."  to read more...

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This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information is designed for educational purposes only and is not intended to be prescriptive. If you require advice for any particular health reason, it is advised that you consult your health care provider. ~~~Nancy
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Gastritis Symptoms

Gastritis facts

  • Gastritis is a condition in which the stomach lining is inflamed.
  • The term gastritis refers specifically to abnormal inflammation in the stomach lining. However, gastritis is sometimes mistakenly used to describe any symptoms of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen. Most people who have upper abdominal symptoms do not have gastritis.
  • The most common causes of gastritis are H. pylori infections and prolonged use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • Many people with gastritis have no symptoms. Those who do have symptoms may experience dyspepsia - upper abdominal discomfort or pain, nausea, or vomiting.
  • Treating H. pylori infection is important, even if a person is not experiencing symptoms. Left untreated, H. pylori infection may lead to peptic ulcer disease or cancer.

What is gastritis?

Gastritis is a condition in which the stomach lining - known as the mucosa - is inflamed. The stomach lining contains special cells that produce acid and enzymes, which help break down food for digestion, and mucus, which protects the stomach lining from acid. When the stomach lining is inflamed, it produces less acid, enzymes, and mucus.

Gastritis may be acute or chronic. Sudden, severe inflammation of the stomach lining is called acute gastritis. Inflammation that lasts for a long time is called chronic gastritis. If chronic gastritis is not treated, it may last for years or even a lifetime.

Erosive gastritis is a type of gastritis that often does not cause significant inflammation but can wear away the stomach lining. Erosive gastritis can cause bleeding, erosions, or ulcers. Erosive gastritis may be acute or chronic.

The relationship between gastritis and symptoms is not clear. The term gastritis refers specifically to abnormal inflammation in the stomach lining. People who have gastritis may experience pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen, but many people with gastritis do not have any symptoms.

The term gastritis is sometimes mistakenly used to describe any symptoms of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen. Many diseases and disorders can cause these symptoms. Most people who have upper abdominal symptoms do not have gastritis.

What causes gastritis?

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes most cases of chronic nonerosive gastritis. H. pylori are bacteria that infect the stomach lining. H. pylori are primarily transmitted from person to person. In areas with poor sanitation, H. pylori may be transmitted through contaminated food or water.

In industrialized countries like the United States, 20 to 50 percent of the population may be infected with H. pylori.1 Rates of H. pylori infection are higher in areas with poor sanitation and higher population density. Infection rates may be higher than 80 percent in some developing countries.1

The most common cause of erosive gastritis - acute and chronic - is prolonged use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Other agents that can cause erosive gastritis include alcohol,cocaine, and radiation.

Traumatic injuries, critical illness, severe burns, and major surgery can also cause acute erosive gastritis. This type of gastritis is called stress gastritis.

Less common causes of erosive and nonerosive gastritis include

  • autoimmune disorders in which the immune system attacks healthy cells in the stomach lining
  • some digestive diseases and disorders, such as Crohn's disease and pernicious anemia
  • viruses, parasites, fungi, and bacteria other than H. pylori

1Lee Y, Liou J, Wu M, Wu C, Lin J. Review: eradication of Helicobacter pylori to prevent gastroduodenal diseases: hitting more than one bird with the same stone. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology. 2008;1(2):111–120. ...

 

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